Monday, November 21, 2022 - Friday, November 25, 2022 Metz, France

One Health: why Biodiversity is important?

23 November 2022
S13 14:30 > 16:30 One Health: why Biodiversity is important? Room 03

Main organizer (applicant) of the symposium (Name, institution, email):
Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, University of Freiburg, Germany,

Co-organizers of the symposium (Names, institutions, emails):

Aletta Bonn, UFZ, University of Jena, iDiv,
Hervé Jactel, INRAE,
Daniela Haluza, Medical University of Vienna,

Session description :

The biodiversity crisis needs to be tackled in unison with the climate crisis and health crisis. The rise of One Health, Planetary Health or EcoHealth concepts also underline the close linkages between the state of ecosystems and human health, and ask for interdisciplinary approaches to tackle these global crises. Biodiversity links to health via four pathways, (i) reducing harm (e.g. provision of food, medicines, regulating climate, air and noise pollution); (ii) restoring capacities (e.g. attention restoration, stress reduction); (iii) building capacities (e.g. promoting physical activity, transcendent experiences); and (iv) causing harm (e.g. dangerous wildlife, zoonotic diseases, allergens). It is often postulated that ecosystem degradation favors both the emergence and the risk of transmission of these pathogens while restoration may contribute to a nature based health solutions. Forests, for example, are the main reservoir of terrestrial biodiversity and are currently threatened by climate change, becoming the object of much attention for the prevention of global sanitary risks. But conversely, forests also deliver ecosystem dis-services related to human health, e.g. through habitat provisioning for vectors of disease pathogens. This symposium will therefore review advances in ecological research on the functional link between biodiversity and human health risk mitigation, in the context of global change. In accordance with the One Health approach, it will adopt a multidisciplinary point of view, welcoming ecologists, physiologists, medical professionals and related disciplines.

The participation of speakers will be supported by three BiodivERsA projects funded through the 2018-2019 BiodivERsA joint call for research proposals, under the BiodivERsA3 ERA-Net COFUND programme: Dr.FOREST (Diversity of FORESTs affecting human health and well-being,, DiMoC (Diversity components in mosquito-borne diseases in face of climate change, and BioRodDis (Managing biodiversity in forests and urban green spaces : Dilution and amplification effects on rodent microbiomes and rodent-borne diseases, and one ANR project (DiPTiCC, Diversité et Productivité des forêTs impactées par le Changement Climatique, ANR-16-CE32-0003).

INT110 Role of tree species diversity on ticks and tick-borne diseases > A. Audrey BOURDIN
Content : Bourdin, A.1 (, Bord, S.2, Dokhelar, T.1, Durand, J. 3, Moutailler, S.4, Galon, C. 4, Scherer-Lorenzen, M. 5, Jactel, H. 1
1 INRAE, University of Bordeaux, UMR Biogeco, F-33612 Cestas, France
2 Paris-Saclay University, AgroParisTech, INRAE, JRU MIA-Paris, 75005, Paris, France.
3 INRAE, UMR 1136 ‘Interactions Arbres Micro-Organismes’, Centre INRAE Grand Est-Nancy, F-54280 Champenoux, France
4 ANSES, INRAE, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, UMR BIPAR, Laboratoire de Santé Animale, Maisons-Alfort, F-94700, France
5 University of Freiburg, Faculty of Biology, Geobotany, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany

A growing body of observational and experimental evidence confirms that more diverse forests provide better support to the provision of ecosystem services and improve nature’s contributions to people. However, forests and other ecosystems can also provide "disservices”. These have received much less scientific attention, although they have recently gained importance with the emergence of epidemics affecting human populations. Here we will review how forest diversity can impact ticks and tick-borne diseases, the major vector-borne human diseases in Europe, based on data gathered within the Dr.Forest project (Diversity of FORESTs affecting human health and well-being).
INT111 The more the merrier? Exploring the role of forest biodiversity on mental health and well-being. An experimental field study. > K. Kevin ROZARIO
Content : Rozario, K.1,2,3,4 (, Oh, R.R.Y.2,3, Marselle, M.5, Schröger, E.4, Gillerot, L.6,7, Ponette, Q.8, Godbold, D.9, Haluza, D.10, Kilpi, K.11, Müller, D.4, Roeber, U.4, Verheyen, K.6, Muys, B.7, Bonn, A.2,1,3
1 Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Biodiversity, Dornburger Straße 159, 07743 Jena, Germany
2 Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Ecosystem Services, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
3 German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Puschstraße 4, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
4 Leipzig University, Institute of Psychology–WilhelmWundt, Department of Cognitive and Biological Psychology, Neumarkt 9, 04109 Leipzig,Germany
5 University of Surrey, School of Psychology, Environmental Psychology Research Group, 36 AC 05, Guilford, UK
6 Ghent University, Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, 9090 Melle-Gontrode, Belgium
7 KU Leuven, Division of Forest, Nature and Landscape, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
8 Université catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute, Department of Environmental Science, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
9 University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Institute of Forest Ecology, Peter-Jordan-Straße 82, 1190 Vienna, Austria
10 Medical University of Vienna, Department of Environmental Health, Center for Public Health, 1090 Vienna, Austria
11 BOS+ Vlaanderen, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, Gontrode, Belgium

A growing body of evidence highlights the potential of forests for fostering human mental health and well-being, yet research on the contribution of specific forest properties is scarce. More and more studies suggest that biodiversity, by its intriguing stimuli, positively influences mental health and well-being. Whether this also applies for forest biodiversity is less well investigated. By conducting an experimental, multicentric field study in three peri-urban forests in Europe, we studied the particular role of forest biodiversity on mental health and well-being by emphasizing stress mitigation and attention restoration as potential mediating pathways. In a 4x2 between-within subject design, we randomly assigned 223 participants to 20-minute stays in either low, medium or high forest biodiversity condition or an urban control. Forest patches were selected according to actual tree species richness as biodiversity proxy (monoculture vs. 2-species vs. 4-5 species). Before and after the intervention, questionnaires on mental health and well-being, stress and focused attention were completed. Subsidiary, participants evaluated their study surroundings according to perceived (forest) biodiversity, as well as perceived restorativeness once after the intervention. As expected, being in the forest significantly outperformed staying in an urban environment concerning mental health, mental well-being, perceived stress, focused attention, as well as perceived restorativeness. No significant differences were found for tree species richness – all forest patches likewise enhanced our emphasized well-being parameters. Note, however, that participants in the three forest conditions reported significant increments of focused attention, less perceived stress and a higher restorative potential for their respective forest venue when subjective perceptions of biodiversity levels were higher. Despite not being able to confirm mental health promoting effects of actual forest biodiversity in the present study, our results provide important insights into the significance of forests in general, as well as subjective perceptions of biodiversity for human mental health and well-being.
INT112 How forests alleviate human thermal stress > L. Loïc GILLEROT
Content : Gillerot, L.1,2 (, Landuyt, D.1, Oh, R.R.Y3,4, Chow, W.5, Haluza, D.6, Ponette, Q.7, Jactel, H.8, Bruelheide, H.9, Jaroszewicz, B.10, Scherer-Lorenzen, M.11, De Frenne, P.1, Muys, B.2, Verheyen, K.1
1 Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Ghent University, 9090 Melle-Gontrode, Belgium
2 Division of Forest, Nature and Landscape, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
3 German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
4 Department of Ecosystem Services, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), 04318 Leipzig, Germany
5 School of Social Sciences, Singapore Management University, 178903 Singapore, Singapore
6 Department of Environmental Health, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
7 Earth and Life Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
8 INRAE, University of Bordeaux, umr Biogeco, F-33612 Cestas, France
9 Institute of Biology, Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany
10 Białowieża Geobotanical Station, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, 17-230 Białowieża, Poland
11 Geobotany, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

Current climate change aggravates human health hazards posed by heat stress. Forests can locally mitigate this by acting as strong thermal buffers, yet potential mediation by forest ecological characteristics remains underexplored. In a first study, we monitored forest microclimates including air temperature, air humidity, grey globe temperature and wind speed, in 131 forest plots across four European countries and compared these to open-field controls. These four microclimate variables allow for calculating the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) which is the most commonly used indicator in outdoor human thermal comfort research. Results show that forests not only warmed cold extremes, but that the strongest buffering occurred under very hot conditions (PET > 35°C), thereby reducing strong to extreme heat stress day occurrence by 84.1%. Both young plantations and mature forests cooled the microclimate by at least 10°C PET under those conditions, but large variation was present among forests. We will present how the forest's cooling capacity is influenced or enhanced by various forest structure, composition and diversity variables. In a second study, the 'objective' microclimate data were complemented with 'subjective' thermal perception data from a large survey conducted in three urban forests with 223 participants. Insights on subjective experiences, potential individual variation and the effects of different forest conditions will be presented for the first time.
INT113 Diversity components in Mosquito-borne diseases > S. Stephanie THOMAS
Content : Thomas,S.M.1,2 (, Shittu, R.A.1, Adeleke, E.D.1, Edelmann, J.1, Beierkuhnlein, C.1,2

1 Department of Biogeography, University of Bayreuth, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany
2 Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER), University of Bayreuth, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany

Mosquito-borne pathogens such as chikungunya virus and West Nile virus are an increasing threat to veterinary and public health in Europe. Emerging and re-emerging transmission patterns are influenced by diverse ecological, environmental, and socio-economic factors Meanwhile, vaccination and pharmaceutical treatment is either not available or very limited. Beside climatic changes, the role of biodiversity on disease transmission is not well established. We provide a current overview about the spatial distribution and diversity patterns of mosquitoes including invasive disease vectors in Europe. With further focus on an important vector mosquito, the Asian Tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) able to transmit more than 20 arboviruses. Discrepancies between modelled habitat suitability in literature and real occurrences are prominent. We developed a global ecological niche model to evaluate the potential of wind speed, which is rarely used in species distribution models. We found that climatically suitable and monitored areas where Ae. albopictus is not established have a higher wind speed than areas where the species is already established. Further, biotic interactions may play a vital role in occurrence and the abundance of mosquitoes. We therefore developed a joint species distribution model including occurrence on seven species in 111 mosquito traps in Doñana Natural areas, Spain. The abundance of mosquitoes in different landscapes varies within the wetland. Variation due to the random location of the traps was the most important factor causing variation in species abundances, while also landscape type affected the variation of species. Culex theileri had positive biotic association with other species except for Ochlerotatus detritus. Ochlerotatus caspius had negative biotic interactions with the other species except for Culex theileri and Anopheles atroparvus. Biodiversity and environmental factors should be jointly considered to better understand the transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens which the DiMoC project is aiming at.
INT114 Influence of land-use on the diversity and host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes
Content : Lühken, R.1 (
1 Department of Arbovirology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, 20359 Hamburg, Germany

Transmission cycles of mosquito-borne pathogens are characterized by a complex interplay between vectors and vertebrates. Thereby, the different mosquito species have a different vector capacity, e.g. only a small proportion of taxa is considered susceptible for pathogens, and at the same time different vertebrate species can have a different role as reservoir, amplification or dead-end host for pathogens. Thus, the probability of an interaction between vectors and vertebrate hosts plays an important role for local pathogen transmission. In the field, this interaction is classical measured as host-feeding patterns, i.e. identification of host species from engorged specimens. The different vector species were historically considered to be characterized by species-specific host-feeding preference, e.g. ornithophilic or mammalophilic, while recent studies indicated that the host availability is an important driver of local host-feeding patterns. There is still a lack of knowledge on the ecological drivers of mosquito communities and associated host-feeding patterns. Combining a thorough literature research study and a systematic collection of field-data on the host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes with the analysis of land-use data demonstrated the both, land-use and climatic conditions often only show a weak explanation for mosquito communities and observed host-feeding patterns. The host-selection of mosquitoes generally show a high plasticity, which can explain why changes in the vector or host community, e.g. higher contact probability with humans by deforestation, can lead to the spill-over of pathogens.
INT115 BioRodDis: Exploring associations between zoonotic pathogens, host community diversity and environmental indicators in forests and urban parks throughout Europe.
Content : Sluydts, V.1 (, Colombo, V.1 , Galan, M.2, McManus, A.3, Firozpoor, J.4, Bordes, A.2, Castel, G.2, Eccard, J.4, Henttonen, H.5, Roche, B.6, Grzybek, M.7, Dutra, L.8, Sironen, T.8, Arpin, I.9, Stuart, P.3, Leirs, H.1, Charbonnel, N.2
1University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.
2 CBGP, INRAE, CIRAD, IRD, Institut Agro, Univ Montpellier, 34000 Montpellier, France.
3 MunsterTechnological University, Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 21Clash, Tralee, Ireland.
4 University of Potsdam, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, 14469 Potsdam, Germany.
5 Wildlife Ecology, Natural Research Institute, 00790 Helsinki, Finland.
6 MIVEGEC, IRD, CNRS and Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
7 Department of Tropical Parasitology, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Medical University of Gdansk, 81-519 Gdynia, Poland.
8 Univ.Helsinki, Veterinary Medicine, 00790 Helsinki, Finland.
9 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INRAE, LESSEM, 38400St-Martin-d'Hères, France

Major advances in the understanding of infectious diseases have been achieved these last decades. However, the persistence and re-emergence of pathogens continue to raise public and veterinary health concerns, of which the recent COVID-19 pandemic may be one of the most dramatic examples. Understanding the impact of habitat alterations and concomitant biodiversity loss on pathogen transmission and emergence from wildlife remains challenging. The BioRodDis project aims to elucidate the interlinkages between biodiversity and rodent-borne diseases at local and European scales. The projects sampling sites are temperate forests and urban green spaces, environments where rodents are abundant and human/domestic – wildlife interactions are likely to occur. Here we present the recently collected host-pathogen data from 27 forest sites and 10 urban green spaces throughout 4 European countries. Nearly 2000 specimens were captured during 2020 and 2021 compromising more than 12 different host species. Different organ tissues of each specimen were screened by either 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing or specific PCR. The presence of antibodies to different families of viruses was screened using immunofluorescent assays. A multitude of pathogens from several genera including Bartonella, Borrelia, Mycoplasma, Anaplasma, Neoehrlichia, Leptospira, Orthohantavirus and Orthopoxvirus were detected at non negligeable prevalence. These multi-pathogen multi-host data were analysed using a community ecology approach, elucidating the different factors contributing to pathogen occurrence throughout Europe. These results will contribute to an improved understanding on the biodiversity-disease relation and can guide ecosystem management practices and biological conservation strategies.
INT116 Impacts of forest anthropisation on the relationships between micromammal biodiversity and zoonoses risks in Europe : A transdisciplinary ecohealth approach > N. Nathalie CHARBONNEL
Content : Charbonnel, N.1 (, Arpin, I.2, Castel, G.1, Eccard, J.3, Grzybek, M.4, Leirs, H.5, Roche, B.6, Sironen, T.7, Stuart, P.8

1 CBGP, INRAE, CIRAD, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro, University of Montpellier, 34000 Montpellier, France
2 University of Grenoble Alpes, INRAE, LESSEM, 38400 St-Martin-d'Hères, France
3 University of Potsdam, 14469 Potsdam, Germany
4 Medical University of Gdansk, 80-210 Gdańsk, Poland
5 University of Antwerpen, Evolutionary Ecology Group, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
6 MIVEGEC, University of Montpellier, IRD, CNRS, 34000 Montpellier, France
7 University of Helsinki, Veterinary Medicine, 00790 Helsinki, Finland
8 Munster Technological University, T12 P928 Cork, Ireland

Due to the complexity of the interlinkages between biodiversity and zoonotic diseases, an interdisciplinary approach and a close dialogue between science and stakeholders (transdisciplinarity) are required to improve the knowledge and management of zoonoses. In this talk, I will present the conceptual ecohealth framework that we are implementing to address this issue within the Biodiversa-BioRodDis project. We focus on rodent-borne diseases as rodents are important reservoirs of infectious agents, and we sample rodents along gradients of forest anthropisation (from biological reserves to urban parks) as forests are environments where rodents are abundant, human/domestic wildlife interactions do occur, and efforts are undertaken to preserve biodiversity. Based on some results obtained from different disciplines (community ecology, microbiology, epidemiology, sociology), I will illustrate how inter- and transdisciplinarity may ultimately help designing win-win strategies (prevention, ecosystem management practice implementation) in support of nature–health benefits.
INT117 The role of tree species diversity in forest resistance to emerging and invasive insect pests. > H. Hervé JACTEL
Content : Jactel, H.1 (, Stemmelen, A.1, Castagneyrol, B.1

1 INRAE, University of Bordeaux, umr Biogeco, F-33612 Cestas, France

The world's forests are increasingly impacted by insect outbreaks triggered by climate change or by the introduction of invasive pests resulting from global trade. This increasing damage threatens the integrity and functioning of forest ecosystems, including their contribution to human well-being. There is ample experimental evidence that mixed forests are more resistant to attack by native insect pests than pure forests. Here we will review the latest results on the effect of forest diversity on their resistance to new or emerging pests and whether the same mechanisms of associational resistance are involved.
INT118 One Health – Is Biodiversity important? > M. Michael SCHERER-LORENZEN
Content : Scherer-Lorenzen, M.1 (, Haluza, D.2, Jactel, H.3

1 Geobotany, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
2 Department of Environmental Health, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
3 INRAE, University of Bordeaux, umr Biogeco, F-33612 Cestas, France

We want to offer the opportunity for a final discussion round to (i) summarize the findings of the presentations and the biodiversity effects observed, to (ii) deepen our common understanding of integrative approaches at the nexus between ecosystem sciences and health sciences (One Health, Planetary Health, EcoHealth), and to (ii) critically discuss the use and mis-use of some terminology involved in these concepts, such as the “ecosystem health” or “ecosystem integrity”.
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